Deciphering Radiology One Term at a Time
There are currently 559 names in this directory
The portion of the largest artery in the body that runs through the abdomen; it supplies oxygenated blood to the abdominal and pelvic organs and the legs.
1. In radiology, the uptake of energy from radiation by the tissue or medium through which it passes. 2. In radiation or medical physics, the number of disintegrations per second of a radionuclide.
Small glands that sit atop each kidney and produce hormones important in regulating metabolism, blood pressure and response to stress.
A hypersensitive reaction to common, often harmless substances, most of which are found in the environment.
The suction of fluid from the amniotic sac through the use of a needle inserted through the abdomen.
A group of hormones produced by both men and women. They are present in much higher levels in men and govern the growth and development of the male reproductive system. In women, they are converted to hormones called estrogens.
Drugs used to induce loss of sensation for the patient in preparation for operative procedures.
Drugs used to induce loss of sensation for the patient in preparation for operative procedures.
A ballooning out of a segment of blood vessel caused by disease or weakness in the vessel wall. It may lead to rupture and serious or fatal bleeding.
X-ray imaging of the heart, coronary arteries and/or great vessels made visible by injection of a dye directly into the vessel via a catheter. In other instances, CT or MRI can be used to create three-dimensional pictures of blood vessels.
Drugs that interfere with the growth of blood vessels in the tumor, thus starving the tumor of the nutrients and oxygen it needs to grow. Also called angiostatic therapy.
In a conventional angiogram, a dye is injected into the bloodstream and x-rays are taken to visualize the blood vessels. In other instances, CT or MRI can be used to create three-dimensional pictures of blood vessels.
The process of removing all indentifiers or codes that directly or indirectly link a sample or data to a specific identifiable person.
A class of medications used to treat bacterial infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria.
The use of anticoagulant drugs (blood-thinners) to treat blood clots, including those due to pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis in the calf.
A medication that interferes with the normal function of blood platelets and thereby reduces the tendency for blood to clot; commonly called a blood thinner.
The largest artery in the body; it distributes blood from the heart to the entire body via the circulatory system.
Inside of the appendix where mucus, created by the appendix, travels and empties into the large intestines.
A wormlike "pouch" several inches long located near the beginning of the large intestine, in the lower right portion of the abdomen. At this time, the role the appendix plays in the human body is not known.
arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
1. An abnormal connection between arteries and veins that allows blood flow to bypass the small vessels where oxygen and tissue nutrients are exchanged. These unusual malformations may be present at birth or may result from injury or infection. They are often found in the brain and spinal cord, but may occur anywhere in the body. 2. A tangle of dilated blood vessels that disrupts normal blood flow in the brain.
In radiology, something artificial that appears on a medical image but is not a part of the living tissue being examined. The image distortion could be due to an obstruction, such as a surgical metal clip, or to a problem with the imaging equipment.
A member of the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID) that reduces pain, fever, inflammation, and blood clotting.
A condition of the lungs characterized by a narrowing of the airways and excessive mucus; can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing and coughing.
Loss of energy of a beam of radiant energy due to absorption, scattering, beam divergence, and other causes as the beam propagates through a medium.
Verifying the identity of a person/user to a computer system or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one.
Access controls that restrict access to a system to only authorized users; access control assigns right and privileges of users to resources via single sign-on databases; auto logoff to prevent someone other than the valid user from continuing a session; physical access control for critical computers to prevent console-based malicious attacks, power interruptions or other threats to security of the systems.
automatic spring-loaded needle
Also called core needle. A spring-loaded device that cuts and retrieves a small tissue specimen in its collecting chamber. It is used for biopsy of many different organs in the body.
axillary lymph nodes
Numerous nodes around the axillary (below the shoulder joint) veins which receive the lymphatic drainage from the upper limb, scapular region and pectoral region (including mammary gland); they drain into the subclavian trunk.
A type of white blood cell (called a lymphocyte) that is an essential component of the immune system. Non Hodgkin B cell lymphoma begins in B cells.
A vascular treatment technique that uses catheter-guided balloons to open narrowed blood vessels.
A naturally occurring metal that is used in barium sulfate, a contrast material. Barium is most commonly used for studying the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Not cancerous. May also be defined as non-malignant. Benign is also used to describe medical conditions that have a mild course.
A type of medicine used to lower blood pressure, treat chest pain and heart failure, and to prevent a heart attack.
A condition present at birth in which there is a blockage in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder.
Also called biotherapy. A treatment that involves natural or laboratory-made substances designed to boost, direct or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer.
Biometrics requires a user to provide a unique identifier, such as a fingerprint or voice sample, which is compared to a stored record before the user can gain access to the computer.
1. Process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination. 2. A specimen obtained by biopsy.
Also called biologic therapy. A treatment that involves natural or laboratory-made substances designed to boost, direct or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer.
A condition in which the body's blood clotting mechanism, which turns blood from a free-flowing liquid to a thickened state, is defective.
Also called blood clotting. A process in which blood changes from a free-flowing liquid to a semi-solid gel.
The center of the cylindrical shaped magnet (often referred to as a doughnut) within an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner.
The part of the digestive system distal to the stomach, consisting of the small and large intestines, that digest and eliminate food.
An often fatal condition that results when brain tissue, fluid or blood vessels are pushed outside the skull.
A medical imaging study of the brain's surface using small electrodes to stimulate a nerve so its electrical response can be measured. By determining the role of specific nerves in a patient, this technique helps surgeons avoid damage to sensitive areas while operating on the brain.
BRCA1 and BRCA 2
Human genes that belong to a class of genes known as tumor suppressors. A mutation of these genes has been linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers.
A wire coil placed around the breast that sends and receives radio waves within the magnetic field of an MRI unit to create images.
A measure of the proportions of fat, connective tissue and breast tissue within the breast. A dense breast has a greater amount of ducts, glands, fibrous tissue and less fat. When mammography is performed, many cancers can be difficult to see in patients with dense breast.
A dilation (widening) of the bronchi (the "breathing tubes"), often caused by infection. Serious complications may occur, and some patients require surgical removal of the affected part of the lungs.
Inflammation (swelling) of the mucous membrane of the two subdivisions of the trachea (air tube) that conveys air to and from the lungs.
Visual inspection of the inside of the trachea and the bronchial passages of the lungs, using a rigid or flexible tube or catheter called a bronchoscope.
An abnormal sound heard when listening with a stethoscope over an organ or blood vessel such as the carotid artery in the neck.
A blockage of one or more hepatic veins, which carry blood from the liver back toward the heart.
bursa, pl. bursae
A closed sac or envelope lined with a membrane and containing lubricating fluid, usually found or formed in areas subject to friction; e.g., over an exposed or prominent part or where a tendon passes over a bone.
A blood test used to measure levels of a protein that is found in greater concentrations in tumor cells.
The process by which noncellular material in the body becomes hardened due to deposits of calcium and other materials.
A protein normally found in the tissue of developing babies, but can also be produced by certain types of cancers in adults.
An electrical device, often implanted, that maintains a normal heart rhythm by stimulating the heart muscle.
One of the two major arteries running through either side of the neck, which supply blood to the brain.
1. A tubular instrument to allow passage of fluid from or into a body cavity. It is often used to drain abscesses. 2. A tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to drain it of retained urine. 3. A flexible, hollow plastic or rubber tube that may be passed into a blood vessel to withdraw fluids or inject medicine or contrast materials.
Also known as gluten intolerance. A condition in which sensitivity to gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley and rye) may cause pain, diarrhea, inflammation and damage to the small intestine, and inability to absorb certain vitamins.
Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and helps to cushion and protect them.
Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic (cancer) disease.
A condition in which brain tissue involving the part of the brain called the cerebellum protrudes into the spinal canal.
Pain, fatigue and cramping in the legs brought on by walking that goes away when at rest.
closed bone biopsy
Also called needle bone biopsy. An image-guided procedure in which a needle is used to remove a small sample of bone from the body to be examined under a microscope.
Headaches that occur in groups, or clusters, over a period of several weeks or months separated by headache-free periods of months or years. Cluster headaches include sharp, penetrating pain around or behind one eye, watering of the eye and a stuffy nose.
Chemotherapy or radiation therapy that is delivered to the central nervous system (CNS) by means of a lumbar puncture as preventive cancer treatment. Also referred to as central nervous system (CNS) sanctuary therapy.
To change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state. Blood that does not flow smoothly through a vessel can coagulate or clot by turning from a free-flowing liquid to a semi-solid gel.
A steel-gray metallic element, atomic no. 27, atomic wt. 58.93320; a bioelement and a constituent of vitamin B12; certain of its compounds are pigments, e.g., cobalt blue.
A state of deep unconsciousness that lasts for a prolonged or indefinite period, caused by severe injury or illness.
computed tomography (CT) angiography
A method of examining blood vessels utilizing x-rays and injection of iodine-rich contrast material (dye).
computer-aided detection (CAD)
CAD is computer software that is used to highlight suspicious features on an image and bring them to the attention of the radiologist.
Also known as mild traumatic brain injury. An injury to the brain that occurs when the head or body is struck hard enough that the brain bounces against the skull.
congestive heart failure
A condition in which the heart cannot adequately pump blood forward, leading to a back-up of blood in vessels and an accumulation of fluid in body tissues including the lungs.
core needle biopsy
A type of biopsy in which a large hollow needle is inserted through the skin to the site of an abnormal growth to collect and remove a sample of cells for analysis. This procedure uses an automated needle, which obtains one sample of tissue at a time and is re-inserted several times.
coronary artery bypass graft surgery
This surgery increases blood flow to the heart by using a vein, or an artery from elsewhere in the body, and using it to divert blood around the area of narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries of the heart.
coronary artery disease
A condition involving the narrowing of the coronary arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the heart muscle.
A disorder characterized by non-cancerous, tumor-like growths and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
CT enteroclysis is a special type of computed tomography (CT) imaging that produces detailed images of the small bowel by infusing contrast material through a tube positioned in the upper small bowel.
A blue coloration in the lips, skin and fingernails as a result of reduced oxygen levels in the blood.
A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles are propelled by an alternating electric field between two large electrodes in a constant magnetic field created by two large magnets. The particles are injected at the center of the magnet and spiral outward as their energy increases. Protons produced in a cyclotron can be used to treat cancer, and cyclotron-produced protons can create radioisotopes for nuclear medical procedures.
An inherited disease in which the lungs, intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus, interfering with normal digestion and breathing.
This procedure uses a special camera at the end of a tube that allows the doctor to see inside the bladder.
Also called implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD). A pacemaker-like device that continuously monitors the heart rhythm and delivers lifesaving shocks if a dangerous heart rhythm is detected.
A method of removing waste materials from the body when the kidneys are not working properly.
1. A plate-like muscular structure that separates the chest from the abdominal cavity. 2. The dividing membrane between the chest and abdominal cavity.
Dietitians work with patients to help maintain nutrition. They monitor patients' weight and nutritional problems. Dietitians educate patients and may provide them with recipes and nutritional supplements to improve their nutritional status before, during and after treatment. Dietitians attend four years of college then usually take part in a one-year internship. The American Dietetic Association registers dietitians who have passed a professional examination.
A special secure data file that accompanies an electronic message to verify the identity of the user sending the message, and enabling the user to encrypt the message so that it can only be read by its intended recipient.
digital rectal exam
An examination of the lower rectum and the prostate gland in males to check for abnormalities. The term "digital" refers to the clinician's use of a lubricated finger to conduct the exam.
A tear in the wall of a blood vessel that allows blood under pressure to flow between the layers of the wall, making the tear worse.
A pouch or a pocket-like opening in the bowel wall, usually in the colon. You might think of it as a "bubble" through a weak point in the bowel wall.
Dosimetrists carefully calculate the dose of radiation to make sure the tumor gets enough radiation. They develop a number of treatment plans that can best destroy the tumor while sparing the normal tissues. Many of these treatment plans are very complex. Dosimetrists work with the doctor and the medical physicist to choose the treatment plan that is just right for each patient. Many dosimetrists start as radiation therapists, then, with very intensive training, become dosimetrists. Others are graduates of one-to-two-year dosimetry programs. The Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board certifies dosimetrists.
ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
A breast cancer that has not spread beyond the lining (epithelium) of the milk ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. While DCIS must be treated to prevent it from developing into an invasive breast cancer, it is not harmful at this stage.
This test uses a small transducer that produces high-frequency sound waves, which create detailed images of the heart.
Also called EKG or ECG. A test that records the electrical activity of the heart; it is used to help diagnose certain heart abnormalities.
Radiation consisting of electric and magnetic waves that travel at the speed of light, such as light, radio waves, gamma rays and x-rays.
The part of a digital imaging system that captures and converts x-rays as they pass through a patient into digital signals which are in turn sent to a computer to produce images.
Storage media in PCs and removable/transportable digital media such as magnetic tapes or disks, CDs, pen, flash drives, optical disks, or digital memory cards; or transmission media such as the intranet, dial-up lines, and/or private networks.
electronic medical information
Patient information, including radiological images, lab test results, medications, clinical history, etc., stored on electronic media.
The movement of a blood clot, piece of tissue, or pocket of air or gas from where it forms through the bloodstream until it lodges in place, cutting off the flow of blood with its oxygen and tissue nutrients. Catheter embolization is the deliberate introduction of foreign ("embolic") material such as gelatin sponge or metal coils to stop bleeding or cut off blood flowing to a tumor or arteriovenous malformation.
embolus, pl. emboli
A plug, composed of a detached blood clot, mass of bacteria or other tissue, air or other foreign body, completely or partially blocking a vessel.
In humans, the developing organism from conception until approximately the end of the second month; developmental stages from this time to birth are commonly designated as fetal.
The process of transforming or coding information to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge or the key to decrypt the data.
1. A gland that produces and secretes hormones into the blood or lymph nodes, exerting powerful effects on specific tissues throughout the body. 2. An organ consisting of specialized cells that produces and sends hormones into the bloodstream, affecting various processes throughout the body.
The mucous membrane that forms the inner layer of the uterine wall; the thickness of the endometrium undergoes marked changes with the menstrual cycle.
The use of an illuminated optical instrument to visualize the interior of the body and its organs.
Within the vagina (the genital canal in the female, extending from the uterus to the vulva).
Injection of a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the spine to prevent or eliminate pelvic pain.
Inflammation of the esophagus, the tube-like structure connecting the throat with the stomach.
A long, narrow tube with a light and lens that is used for examining the throat and esophagus.
A type of surgical biopsy in which an entire lesion or abnormal group of cells and tissue as well as a surrounding margin of normal-appearing tissue are removed.
false negative test result
A test result that indicates a disease is not present, when in fact it is present.
Composed of fibrocartilage, the fibers that appear between tendons, ligaments or bones.
A common and benign (non-cancerous) condition of cysts in the breast, characterized by lumpiness and sometimes discomfort.
fine needle aspiration
A type of biopsy in which a small needle is inserted through the skin to the site of an abnormal growth to collect and remove a sample of cells for analysis.
A program or hardware device that filters information coming through an Internet connection into a computer system. If the incoming information packet is flagged by the filters it is not allowed through.
A device that projects radiographic (x-ray) images in a movie-like sequence onto a screen monitor.
A form of real-time x-ray that employs a fluoroscope to examine the tissues and deep structures within the body.
A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.
The incompletely formed gap between bones of a skull in a fetus or an infant, also known as a soft spot.
The process of administering a dose of radiation in smaller units over time, as opposed to a single large dose, to minimize tissue damage.
A camera that records the distribution of radiation emitted from a chemical containing a radionuclide that is attracted to a specific organ or tissue of interest.
(Also called gamma rays.) A very high frequency form of electromagnetic radiation that consists of photons emitted by radioactive elements. Gamma rays can injure and destroy body cells and tissue, especially cell nuclei.
Necrosis (death of one or more cells, or of a portion of tissue or organ) due to obstruction, loss, or diminution of blood supply; it may be localized to a small area or involve an entire extremity or organ (such as the bowel), and may be wet or dry.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
A condition in which stomach acid leaks into the esophagus. Heartburn is the most common symptom. Left untreated, the disease can cause changes to the tissue lining the esophagus and increase the risk of esophageal cancer.
The use of an electronic signal from the pumping of the heart to obtain images of heart contractions.
A specific gene or other identifiable portion of DNA that can be used to identify an individual disease or trait.
genetically engineered tumor vaccines
A DNA molecule that is broken into fragments and then rearranged to create an altered microorganism that when administered, induces immunity.
The most abundant cell type in the central nervous system; glial cells surround and support neurons.
1. Any free (unattached) tissue or organ for transplantation. 2. To transplant an organ or unattached tissue. 3. An artificial blood vessel connection used to facilitate kidney dialysis.
A condition, also called hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Symptoms include an enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure.
A unit of absorbed radiation equal to the dose of one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter, or 100 rad. The unit is named for the British physician L. Harold Gray (1905-1965), an authority on the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer.
great saphenous vein
The longest vein in the body extending from the foot up the inner thigh to the groin.
A physician who specializes in functions and conditions of the female reproductive system.
Raised birthmarks that consist of a clump of blood vessels that did not grow normally. They are often found on the face in many sizes and shapes and are usually blue, red, or purple.
A collection of blood formed when small blood vessels are damaged, causing bleeding into the tissues.
A procedure often required at regular intervals by patients whose kidneys no longer are able to remove waste materials from the blood. A machine performs this function instead and the cleansed blood then is returned to the patient.
The iron-rich protein that carries oxygen inside the red blood cells and gives blood its red color.
A stroke in which blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted as a result of a ruptured blood vessel.
There are three hepatic veins: the right, middle, and left hepatic veins drain blood from the liver back toward the heart.
The liver, gall bladder and bile ducts. The liver produces and secretes bile which is stored in the gallbladder and released through tubular passageways called bile ducts into the bowel to help digest fat and carry away waste.
The most common type of primary liver cancer that starts in the main cells of the liver.
Short for hepatocellular carcinoma. The most common type of primary liver cancer that originates from the main cells of the liver.
hereditary diffuse gastric cancer
A hereditary condition associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer.
Protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented vertebral disk with potential compression of nerves in the spine.
HIPAA security standards
The Federal Government's requirements for handling electronic media and protected health information. The standards address the following: 1. Ensuring confidentiality, integrity and availability of all electronic protected health information (ePHI) created, received, maintained, or transmitted by a healthcare entity. 2. Protecting against any reasonably anticipated threats or hazards to security or integrity of ePHI. 3. Protecting against any reasonably anticipated uses or disclosures of ePHI that are not permitted or required for the care of the patient. 4. Ensuring compliance by the workforce.
Confined, short-term elevation or irregular fluid-filled spot on the skin, slightly reddened, often changing in size and shape and extending to adjacent areas. Hives suddenly erupt and are usually accompanied by intense itching; usually produced by exposure to allergenic substances in susceptible persons.
A complex chemical substance produced in one part or organ of the body that sets the pace for the activity of an organ or group of cells in another part of the body.
A family-centered system of care that attempts to keep chronically ill and terminal patients as comfortable and active as possible.
human papilloma virus (HPV)
A collection of infectious viruses that are spread through intercourse. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD).
A condition marked by an excessive accumulation of fluid resulting in enlarging of the brain cavities and raised pressure within the skull; may also result in enlargement of the skull and wasting of the brain.
The process of administering a dose of radiation in smaller units two to three times a day, as opposed to a larger amount once a day.
A condition, also called Graves' disease, in which the thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Symptoms include an enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure.
A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone for the body's needs. Symptoms include weight gain, energy loss, and dry skin.
An x-ray examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes performed after the injection of a contrast material.
A surgical procedure to attach the ileum (a portion of the small intestine) to an opening made in the abdomen.
The use of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT, x-ray or MRI, to assist in targeting a lesion too small to be felt so that cells can be removed from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope to determine whether the abnormality is cancerous.
1. The practice of giving small amounts of an allergy-producing substance in order to stimulate the formation of antibody that will neutralize it. 2. Use of the body's immune system to fight tumors.
1. A tooth compressed between the jaw and another tooth that fails to fully erupt through the surface of the gums. 2. An immobile mass of stool that does not easily pass from the rectum.
A quarter-sized disk that is placed either surgically or by an interventional radiologist just beneath the skin in the chest or abdomen. The disk is connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is inserted into the disk through the skin. Examples of manufacturer's names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.
in situ breast cancer
The early stage of cancer when it is confined to the ducts of the breast where it began and has not invaded the surrounding fatty tissues.
A breathing apparatus that helps patients inflate their lungs and exercise breathing muscles to prevent the onset of pneumonia following surgery.
A type of surgical biopsy in which part of a lesion or abnormal group of cells is removed.
The death of tissue in the body caused by an obstruction in the tissue's blood supply, a lack of oxygen or both factors.
The protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury. Signs include redness, heat, swelling and pain.
Introduction of a fluid, nutrient, or medication directly into a vein by means of gravity flow.
institutional review board (IRB)
A review body established to protect the welfare of human participants recruited for biomedical research.
internal jugular vein
One of a pair of neck veins that collect blood from the brain and face and convey it toward the heart.
A physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the internal organs.
interstitial lung disease
A respiratory disorder causing shortness of breath on effort. In time the lung tissue may become severely scarred. While some patients recover, others develop respiratory failure or heart failure.
Partial or total blockage of movement of food or stool through the intestines.
A ballooning out of the wall of an artery inside the brain; it may lead the vessel to rupture and bleed heavily.
intraoperative radiation therapy
Radiation treatment of cancer or other diseases done during surgery.
intravenous ('inside a vein')
Frequently a needle will be placed in a vein, often a large arm vein, to deliver fluids and medications, withdraw blood samples, and transfuse blood.
An invasive procedure is typically an "open" operation, such as appendectomy, which requires a surgical incision for exposure of deep structures or organs for performance of an intervention.
invasive breast cancer
Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it first developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues.
A non-metallic element found in table salt, seawater and in plants and animals that grow in the sea. The human body requires small amounts of iodine for healthy growth and development. This element is present in many radiographic contrast materials.
Radiation of sufficient energy to dissociate atoms or molecules into electrically charged atoms or radicals in the irradiated material.
1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background. 2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., heat, light, x-rays).
irritable bowel syndrome
Characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel function - alternating bouts of constipation and diarrhea.
One of two or more nuclides that are chemically identical, having the same number of protons, yet differ in mass number, since their nuclei contain different numbers of neutrons; individual isotopes are named with the inclusion of their mass number in the superior position (12C) and the atomic number (nuclear protons) in the inferior position (6C). In former usage, the mass numbers follow the chemical symbol (C-12).
A condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes turn a yellowish color caused by abnormal levels of bilirubin, a yellow/orange pigment, in the bile and liver.
One of the two bean-shaped organs that excrete urine; typically about 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, 3 cm thick, and located on either side of the backbone.
A thin, tube-like instrument with an attached light and a lens for viewing the inside of the abdominal cavity.
In this exploratory procedure, the surgeon makes a large incision in the abdomen and investigates the internal organs to help determine the cause and extent of a disease.
A device emitting intense, focused light energy that can destroy tissues as an alternative to conventional surgical removal.
1. Mildly cathartic; having the action of loosening the bowels. 2. A mild cathartic; a remedy that moves the bowels slightly without pain or violent action.
An area of abnormal tissue on the skin or within the body caused by injury or disease. A lesion may be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Cancer of the blood cells that starts in the bone marrow, the soft tissue inside most bones.
The crushing of a stone in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder, by mechanical force or sound waves.
The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1 to 2 kg (2 to 4 pounds). It secretes the bile and is also of great importance in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Also called numbing agent. A medication used to produce a temporary loss of sensation in a specific area of the body during a surgical or other medical procedure; It may be administered as an injection under the skin, applied as a topical cream or a patch to the surface of the skin.
1. Limitation to a definite area. 2. The reference of a sensation to its point of origin. 3. The determination of the location of a tumor, disease or other morbid process.
lumen, pl. lumina, lumens
The space in the interior of a tubular structure, such as an artery or the intestine.
The surgical removal of a small tumor (a lump). Lumpectomy generally refers to the removal of a lump from the breast as an alternative to mastectomy, which is the removal of the entire breast including the lump.
One of a pair of organs of respiration in the chest in which aeration of the blood takes place. As a rule, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower), while the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower). Each lung is irregularly conical in shape, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface following the inner curve of the ribs, an inner or mediastinal surface, a thin and sharp anterior border, and a thick and rounded posterior border.
lung volume reduction surgery
The removal of part of the damaged lung, which creates additional space for the remaining healthy lung tissue to expand more easily. This surgery is only used for those with severe emphysema.
A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells.
Small structures throughout the body that filter lymph fluid and collect inflammatory cells in order to keep them from spreading infection.
magnetic field gradient
In magnetic resonance imaging, a magnetic field that varies with location, superimposed on the main uniform field of the magnet, to alter the resonant frequency of nuclei and allow detection of their spatial position.
The central part of the chest cavity, behind the sternum and between the two lungs. This space is mostly occupied by the heart and its major blood vessels, and by the trachea and esophagus.
medical radiation physicists
Qualified medical physicists work directly with the doctor in the treatment planning and delivery. They oversee the work of the dosimetrist and help ensure that complex treatments are properly tailored for each patient. Qualified medical physicists are responsible for developing and directing quality control programs for equipment and procedures. They are responsible for making sure the equipment works properly. Medical radiation physicists take precise measurements of radiation beam characteristics and do other safety tests on a regular basis. Qualified medical physicists have doctorates or master's degrees. Qualified medical physicists have completed four years of college, two to four years of graduate school and typically one to two years of clinical physics training. They are certified by the American Board of Radiology or the American Board of Medical Physics.
A malignant tumor, usually in the skin, that develops from a pigmented lesion over a period of months or years.
The amount of energy or heat expended by the body in a given unit of time as a result of the body's metabolism, or all of its chemical processes.
The sum total of all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, energy, waste elimination and other body functions following food digestion and the distribution of nutrients in the blood.
To spread to another part of the body, usually through the blood vessels, lymph channels, or spinal fluid.
A cancerous tumor formed when cancer cells located elsewhere in the body break away and spread to a new site.
A small wire mesh tube-like device used to hold open an artery following balloon angioplasty.
mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
A condition in which memory or other cognitive functions are below normal but do not interfere with daily functioning. MCI is considered a transitional state between normal forgetfulness and dementia.
One-thousandth of a roentgen (the international unit of exposure dose for x-rays or gamma rays).
A laboratory-produced molecule that is engineered to recognize and bind to the surface of cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies mimic the antibodies naturally produced by the body's immune system that attack invading foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.
MR spectroscopy (MRS)
A variation of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This diagnostic imaging technique measures the concentration of metabolites, which are produced by chemical reactions in the brain and other areas of the body, and displays the results as a graph. The peaks in the graph represent various metabolites. The concentration of these metabolites can be altered by many diseases, including tumor, infections and trauma.
A slimy substance secreted by glands in mucous membranes. Mucous helps protect and lubricate surfaces within the body.
multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
A form of computed tomography technology with a two-dimensional (2-D) detector that produces multiple, thinner slices in a single rotation and a shorter period of time allowing for more detail and additional view capabilities.
An uncommon disease that occurs more frequently in men than in women and is associated with anemia, hemorrhage, recurrent infections, and weakness.
Relating to muscles and to the skeleton, as, for example, the musculoskeletal system.
A tumor of the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma is an uncommon cancer of the white blood cells in the bone marrow that is associated with anemia, hemorrhage, recurrent infections, and weakness.
Also known as a heart attack, it occurs when the supply of blood to the heart is blocked. If blood flow is not quickly restored, the section of the heart wall involved may begin to die.
myocardial perfusion scan
The most common cardiac nuclear medicine procedure, which results in imaging of blood-flow patterns to the heart muscles.
A muscle disease characterized by muscle weakness that usually results in the deterioration of muscle.
A substance that is used medically to relive pain and/or produce a state of drowsiness or sleep.
natural background exposure
Radiation is a natural part of life. It has existed since the beginning of time and is an integral part of the universe in which we live. Life as we know it on earth has evolved in the presence of radiation. Radiation comes to us from many sources both natural and man-made. These sources include cosmic radiation from outer space, radiation from the soil and buildings, and natural isotopes in our own bodies. Cosmic radiation and terrestrial radiation vary with location.
The removal of living tissue for microscopic examination by suction through a fine needle attached to a syringe. The procedure is used primarily to obtain cells from a lesion containing fluid.
Removal of tissue or suspensions of cells from living patients through a small needle for diagnostic examination.
neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)
An intensive care unit containing specialized equipment to treat and care for premature or critically ill newborn babies.
A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating brain tumors and other tumors of the nervous system.
Procedures in which miniature instruments or a catheter containing medications are inserted into a blood vessel in the brain to treat vascular disease or abnormalities.
A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the brain and nervous system.
Also called a nerve cell. A specialized cell in the brain and nervous system that receives and sends electrical impulses through networks of connections.
The clinical subspecialty concerned with the diagnostic radiology of diseases of the central nervous system, head, and neck.
Devices that are implanted into the spine and connected to internal or external generators to stimulate the nerves as a means of disrupting pain signals or causing organs to function more efficiently.
One of two major categories of lymphoma, a cancer of the blood, that begins in either the B cells or T cells of the immune system.
Nonrepudiation ensures that a party cannot argue the validity of a statement or contract, that a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent and received the message; methods include digital signature, the use of public and private keys, and auditing of all user activity.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces swelling and pain, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
An injury or disease is said to be occult when it is hidden, difficult to see or unaccompanied by readily discernible signs and symptoms.
Related to orthodontics, a specialty within dentistry to prevent and correct teeth irregularities.
A common condition that usually starts in middle age and is characterized by degenerative changes in the bone and cartilage of one or more joints.
A measure of an individual's cigarette smoking history calculated by multiplying the number of cigarette packs smoked per day by the number of years the individual has smoked.
A genetic or viral condition characterized by excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can lead to enlarged or misshapen bones.
An imaging examination of the pancreatic ducts. For x-ray pancreatography, the examination requires direct injection of contrast material into the pancreatic ducts. For MRI, pancreatography is performed without a direct contrast material injection, however an intravenous injection of contrast material may be used.
Typically four small raisin-sized glands in the neck primarily involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus levels in the body.
A hole in the walls of an organ or structure of the body that develops from a weak spot in the organ or from a deep penetrating wound caused by trauma.
Excessive fluid within the sac surrounding the heart, usually due to inflammation.
The surface of the body between the anus and the scrotum in men and between the anus and the vulva in women.
periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)
Damage to white matter brain tissue as a result of a lack of oxygen or blood flow to the brain prior, during or after birth.
A form of treatment in which a drug is administered and then activated by light.
Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)
A computer system for acquiring, storing, viewing, and managing digital medical imaging studies and related information.
An accumulation of fat and other substances on the inner wall of a blood vessel that, over time, may build up and limit or block blood flow through the vessel.
Particles that are formed in bone marrow and circulate in the blood. They bind at the site of a wound to begin the clotting process.
An excess of fluid in the pleural cavity, the space that surrounds the lungs and lies underneath the chest wall.
A thin layer of tissue that lines the pleural cavity, the space that surrounds the lungs and lies underneath the chest wall.
Also called pleural cavity. The cavity that exists between the lungs and underneath the chest wall. It is normally empty, with the lung immediately against the inside of the chest wall. In some diseases, fluid can build up in this space (a pleural effusion). In trauma, air can enter this space (a pneumothorax). Under either condition, excessive fluid or air in the pleural space can cause difficulty breathing since the lung is prevented from inflating fully.
A disorder in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.
A usually benign growth that bulges outward from the surface of normal tissue, usually appearing as an irregular mound- or mushroom-like structure growing from a broad base or a slender stalk.
Also called the hepatic portal vein. The main vein that carries blood from the digestive tract to the liver.
A condition that includes pain, nausea, vomiting and low-grade fever that many patients experience following an embolization procedure. to prevent blood from flowing to the area.
A term typically denoting the direction of x-rays, from posterior to anterior, through a body part.
A condition in which the adrenal glands produce too much of the hormone aldosterone, leading to high blood pressure.
One of the two major types of headaches. Primary headaches, which include cluster, migraine and tension headaches, are not associated with a medical condition or disease.
1. A slender rod of flexible material, with blunt bulbous tip, used for exploring sinuses, fistulas, other cavities, or wounds. 2. A device or agent used to detect or explore a substance; e.g., a molecule used to detect the presence of a specific fragment of DNA or RNA or of a specific bacterial colony. 3. To enter and explore, as with a probe.
This procedure uses a special camera at the end of a tube that allows the doctor to see inside the rectum.
Related to a medical prognosis, a prediction of the course and likely outcome of a disease.
prophylactic cranial radiation
Exposure of the brain to low-dose radiation in a cancer patient in order to prevent the tumor from spreading to this site.
A tumor of the prostate gland, which is located in front of a man's rectum and below the bladder.
Blockage of the arteries in the lungs, most frequently by detached fragments of a blood clot from a leg or pelvic vein, commonly when that clot follows an operation or confinement to bed.
A type of high blood pressure within the network of blood vessels between the heart and lungs.
A test that involves a small device placed on a finger tip to measure the oxygen saturation of the blood.
Radiologic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder, performed with the aid of a contrast material either injected intravenously, or directly from below via the urethra, or from above through the kidney (either via a direct puncture or through a previously placed catheter).
A bacterial infection of the kidney that may occur when a urinary tract infection (UTI) spreads beyond the bladder to the ureters and kidneys.
Doctors who oversee the care of each cancer patient undergoing radiation treatment. They develop and prescribe each cancer patient's treatment plan, they make sure that every treatment is accurately given, and they monitor the patient's progress and adjust treatment to make sure patients get quality care throughout treatment. Radiation oncologists also help identify and treat any side effects of radiation therapy and work closely with all members of the radiation oncology team. Radiation oncologists have completed four years of college, four years of medical school, one year of general medical internship, then four years of residency (specialty training in radiation oncology). They have extensive training in the safe use of radiation to treat disease. If they pass a special examination, they are certified by the American Board of Radiology. Patients should ask if their doctor is board certified.
Also known as radiation therapy. The study and use of x-rays or radionuclides to treat abnormal tissue growths (malignant or nonmalignant).
radiation oncology nurses
Nurses work with the radiation team to care for patients during the course of treatment. They help evaluate the patient before treatment begins and talk to the patient about their treatment, the potential side effects and their management. During the course of radiation treatments patients may be evaluated weekly, or more frequently by the nurse to assess problems and concerns. Radiation oncology nurses are registered nurses. Most nurses in radiation therapy have additional accreditation in the specialty of oncology nursing. Advanced practice nurses in oncology, which include clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, have completed a master's degree program.
Radiation therapists work with radiation oncologists. They administer the daily radiation treatment under the doctor's prescription and supervision, maintain daily records and regularly check the treatment machines to make sure they are working properly. Radiation therapists go through a two-to-four year educational program following high school or college, then take a special examination and must be certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. In addition, many states require that radiation therapists be licensed.
The decrease in the amount of any radioactive material with the passage of time due to the spontaneous emission of radiation from an atomic nucleus.
A treatment technique that uses high-frequency alternating electrical current to destroy tissue cells by heating them.
Referring to the examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of x-rays.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of x-rays with the findings usually recorded digitally or on film.
radioisotope bone scan
A nuclear imaging examination that produces pictures of bones to help detect abnormalities caused by disease or injury. During a bone scan, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the body and collects in the bones.
Radiology Information System (RIS)
A special case of a hospital information system (HIS) tailored to radiological imaging, containing information such as imaging examination orders, schedules on imaging modalities, imaging device parameters, billing codes and information.
The medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic or particulate radiation in the treatment of disease.
A radioactive gas without odor, taste or color that occurs naturally with the decay of uranium and thorium, metallic chemicals found in rocks and soil. Radon ingestion or inhalation can cause health problems (e.g., lung cancer).
A scan pattern in which an area is scanned in a rectangular pattern from side-to-side in lines from top to bottom to create an image that is projected on a cathode-ray tube and displayed on a screen.
reactive airway disease
An asthma-like syndrome due to muscle spasms in the airways. It can cause wheezing, chest tightness, coughing and difficulty breathing. This includes patients with asthma.
The lower part of the large intestine where water is absorbed from the gut and where stool is formed.
Usually a non-radiologist physician who sends a patient to a specialist for more information or treatment.
Relating to the system of organs and parts used in reproduction. In the male, this consists of the testes, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. In the female, this consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and vulva.
Related to the process of moving air into and out of the lungs, exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide within the body's tissues.
A chronic autoimmune disease that occurs when the immune system attacks the lining, cartilage, bones, and supporting structures of multiple joints.
A general term for pain related to the sciatic nerve; it may result from a herniated intervertebral disc in the spine.
A diagnostic procedure consisting of the administration of a radionuclide that accumulates in the organ or tissue of interest, followed by recording the distribution of the radioactivity with a stationary or scanning external scintillation camera.
Treatment involving the injection of a sclerosing (hardening) solution into vessels or tissues.
Imaging examination of the breast by means of x-rays, of individuals usually without symptoms, to detect unsuspected breast cancer.
One of the two major types of headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by an injury or underlying illness, such as bleeding in the brain, an infection or a brain tumor.
secure sockets layer (SSL)
A cryptographic communications protocol that provides secure transmissions on the Internet by encoding/decoding the data transfers.
Approaches that guide a patient to a state of relaxation by focusing attention on pleasant thoughts. Guidance is provided by specially trained radiology or other medical personnel. This condition may be achieved via distraction techniques or self-hypnotic relaxation.
A drug that allows you to relax during a procedure like angiography, often without putting you to sleep.
A sudden, uncontrollable wave of electrical activity in the brain that causes involuntary bodily movement, a change in attention or a loss of consciousness.
A condition marked by sudden, uncontrollable waves of electrical activity in the brain, causing involuntary movement or loss of consciousness.
A thick white fluid, made and stored in male testicles, that carries sperm out of the body through the penis during ejaculation.
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Any infectious disease that is passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
A severe, chronic type of anemia caused by an abnormal form of hemoglobin that distorts the red blood cells. These abnormal red blood cells sometimes plug the blood vessels, causing damage to the organ downstream.
single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT)
An imaging test that uses a gamma camera and a computer to create three-dimensional (3-D) images of the distribution of a radiotracer in the body. SPECT is used to study blood flow through the heart muscle, and to study the brain, bones and to detect infection and certain types of tumors.
Social workers may be available to provide practical help and counseling to patients or members of their families and can help them to cope. They also may help arrange for home health care and other services. Social workers may be licensed. Licensed social workers must have a master's degree and must pass an examination.
An allied health professional who has been specifically trained to perform ultrasound examinations. Many sonographers are certified by a registry of sonographers, provided they meet strict training requirements and pass examinations in basic ultrasound science and clinical applications.
Syn: ultrasonography. The imaging of body structures by measuring the reflection or transmission of high frequency sound waves. Computer calculation of the distance to the sound-reflecting or -absorbing surface plus the known orientation of the sound beam gives a two- or three-dimensional image.
Sonography of the uterus and fallopian tubes using a transvaginal probe following the injection of sterile saline into the uterus via a thin catheter inserted through the cervix.
An instrument for enlarging the opening of a canal or cavity in order to facilitate inspection of its interior; most frequently used with Pap tests.
Sperm (or spermatozoa) is the male reproductive cell carried by semen through the penis when a man ejaculates.
A ring-like muscle that surrounds and is able to contract or close a bodily passage or opening.
A cylindrical bundle of nerves, lying within the vertebral column, that carries sensory messages from peripheral nerves to the brain, and motor impulses from the brain to the body's muscles.
A large organ located in the left, upper abdomen, beside the stomach; as part of the immune system, it produces white blood cells and acts as a blood filter.
stenosis, pl. stenoses
Also called a stricture. 1. An abnormal narrowing of any canal; for example, a narrowing of one of the cardiac valves. 2. Narrowing of an opening or passageway in the body. Stenosis of an artery may reduce blood flow through the vessel.
An x-ray procedure that uses multiple coordinates to precisely determine the location of a tumor or nodule so that a tissue sample may be obtained.
A heart monitoring test to discover how well the heart works, usually performed via physical exercise, sometimes via drugs to simulate heart stress.
Blood collection between middle (arachnoid) and inner (pia mater) linings of the brain. It can be a result of trauma, or a bursting (ruptured) aneurysm. An aneurysm is a small area of weakness of the wall of an artery, which may be congenital, or less commonly, due to other causes, such as an infection.
A major vein running under the collarbone (clavicle) which receives blood from the large vein of the upper arm and returns toward the heart.
superior vena cava
One of the largest veins in the body, it returns blood from the entire upper half of the body directly to the right atrium, one of the heart chambers.
A surgically created passageway to allow blood or other bodily fluids to flow between two locations. A shunt may be used to move fluid from one part of the body to another or to divert blood flow from one route to another.
A sexually transmitted disease that can cause lesions of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.
A radiotracer commonly used in nuclear medicine for many different types of examination. It decays within 24 hours, leaving no residual radiation.
temporomandibular joint disorder
Also known as TMJ. A group of disorders associated with pain in the face affecting the jaw muscles, temporomandibular joints (upper temporal bone and lower mandible jaw bone that form the joint) and nerves.
A headache in which pressure and a band-like tightness begins in the back of the head and upper neck and gradually encircles the head.
The twisting of the spermatic cord that contains the vessels that supply blood to the testicles.
A medical specialty and the study of radiation treatment of abnormal tissue (nonmalignant or cancerous) through the use of x-rays or radionuclides.
One of a group of medications used to dissolve clots within the blood vessels of the body.
Inflamation of a vein that results when a blood clot, a thickened mass of blood, forms along the wall of a blood vessel.
One of nine endocrine glands in the body, located in front of the neck just below the Adam's apple. It is shaped like a butterfly, with two lobes on either side of the neck connected by a narrow band of tissue. The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormones that set the rate the body carries on its necessary functions (metabolic rate). Some of the functions controlled by thyroid hormones include heart rate, cholesterol level, body weight, energy level, muscle strength, skin condition and vision.
Making a radiographic image of a selected plane by means of reciprocal linear or curved motion of the x-ray tube and film cassette; images of all other planes are blurred ("out of focus") by being relatively displaced on the film.
Across or through the vagina (the genital canal in the female, extending from the uterus to the vulva).
A hollow needle with a sharply pointed end that is inserted into a blood vessel, body cavity or bone. Needles, tubes or other instruments are then inserted through the trocar be inserted to reach the treatment area.
A highly contagious infection transmitted through the air that attacks the lungs and other parts of the body.
Ultrasound imaging, also known as ultrasound scanning or sonography, is a method of obtaining images from inside the human body through the use of high frequency sound waves. The soundwaves' echoes are recorded and displayed as a real-time, visual image. No ionizing radiation is involved in ultrasound imaging.
Denoting electromagnetic rays at higher frequency than the violet end of the visible spectrum.
A radioactive metallic element, atomic no. 92, atomic wt. 238.0289, occurring mainly in pitchblende and notable for its two isotopes: 238U and 235U (99.2745% and 0.720%, respectively, the rest being made up by 234U), 235U being the first substance ever shown capable of supporting a self-sustaining chain reaction.
A tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In men, the urethra carries semen from the prostate and other sex glands out of the body through the penis.
A waste product left over from normal chemical processes in the body and found in the urine and blood.
A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tract diseases.
A type of biopsy in which a vacuum-powered instrument is inserted through the skin to the site of an abnormal growth to collect and remove a sample of cells for analysis. Using vacuum pressure, the abnormal cells and tissue are removed without having to withdraw the probe after each sampling as in core needle biopsy.
One of two nerves that run on opposite sides of the body from the brainstem through the neck and chest to the abdomen. The vagus nerves are involved in bodily functions that are not under voluntary control, such as breathing and digestion, as well as regulation of the heart rate.
Any condition that affects the (circulatory) system of blood vessels that carries blood from the heart throughout the rest of the body. This includes diseases of the arteries, veins, and lymph vessels and blood disorders that affect circulation.
One of a large system of branching vessels that collect blood which the arteries have distributed to body tissues and returns it to the heart and then the lungs.
A procedure in which varicose veins, abnormally swollen and enlarged blood vessels, are removed surgically, usually from the leg.
Enlarged veins with faulty valves that permit blood to pool by gravity instead of returning to the heart for re-circulation.
1. Replacement of air or other gas in a space by fresh air or gas. 2. Movement of gas(es) into and out of the lungs.
1. In the brain, the hollow cavities containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 2. The main pumping chambers in the heart.
An individual bone in the column of bones that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis which permits us to stand upright and serves to enclose and protect the spinal cord.
vertebral compression fractures
Fractures of the vertebrae caused by the compression, or excessive pushing, of one bone against another.
virtual private network (VPN)
A computer network in which links between computers or other hardware devices are carried on an open connection or over the Internet instead of being directly connected by physical wires; software encryption ensures that only authorized users can access the network.
volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)
Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) is an advanced form of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) that delivers a targeted three-dimensional dose of radiation to a tumor in one or more treatments.
white blood cells
Also known as lymphocytes. Cells that circulate in the blood and are responsible for both directly and indirectly fighting infection by attacking foreign invaders of the body.
Guided by an imaging modality such as magnetic resonance imaging, a wire is inserted through a hollow needle to a lesion, or suspicious area of cells and tissue. The wire then guides the surgeon to the area so that the abnormal tissue can be surgically removed for examination.
1. The ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a vacuum tube, resulting from the bombardment of the target anode with a stream of electrons from a heated cathode. 2. Ionizing electromagnetic radiation produced by the excitation of the inner orbital electrons of an atom by other processes, such as nuclear delay and its sequelae. 3. A radiograph.